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A recount is a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order in which they happened.


Teks Recount adalah teks yang berisi tentang pengalaman – pengalaman atau kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau.


Such as:

  • Personal recounts, eg. Diary, personal letters, etc
  • Factual retellings, eg. science experiment or news, police report, incidents reports.
  • Imaginative recounts


  • Orientation: provides the setting and introduces participants.

§  Events: tell what happened, in what sequence.

§  Re-orientation (A personal comment): optional-closure of events.

§  Focus on specific participants.

§  Use of material processes.

§  Circumstance of time and place

§  Use of past tense, i.e. simple past

§  Focus on temporal sequence.

§  Frequent use is made of words which link events in time, such as next, later, when, then, after, before, first, at the same time, etc.




A report is used to present information about something. Reports generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made and also social phenomena in our environment.


Teks Report adalah teks yang isinya mendeskripsikan sesuatu (binatang/barang/tempat umum,dll) secara umum.


Such as:

Brochures, government and business report.


  • General classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
  •  Description tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of (1) parts, (2) qualities, (3) habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if non-natural.



§  Focus on generic participants.

§  Use of Relational Processes to state what is and that which it is.

§  Use of simple present tense (unless extinct)

§  No temporal sequence









It is to inform the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.



  • Newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in summary form.
  • Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
  • Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event.



  • Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline.
  • Use of Material Processes to retell the event.
  • Use of projecting Verbal Processes in Sources stage.
  • Focus on Circumstances (e.g. mostly within Qualifiers).



To present (at least) two points of view about an issue.


Teks Diskusi adalah teks yang menyajikan lebih dari satu point/ sudut pandang tentang suatu persoalan



Such as:

Pappers, essays and thesis.

  • Issue:

~       Statement

~       Preview


  •  Arguments for and against or Statement of differing points of view.

~         Point

~         Ellaboration


  • Conclusion or Recommendation.



  • Focus on generic human and generic non-human Participants.
  • Use of:

~         Material Processes e.g. has produced, have developed, to feed.

~         Relational Processes, e.g., is, could have, cause, are.

~         –Mental Processes, e.g., feel.

  • Use of Comparative: contrastive and Consequential conjunctions.
  • Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns (abstraction).











It is to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident.



Such as:

Humour stories

  • Abstract: signals the retelling of an unusual incident.
  • Orientation: sets the scene
  • Crisis: provides details of the unusual incident.
  • Reaction: reaction to crises
  • Coda: optional – reflection on or evaluation of the incident.


  • Use of exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers (really, very, quite, etc.) to point up the significance of the events.
  • Use of material processes to tell what happened.
  • Use of temporal conjunctions.



Narrative is the telling of the story by using spoken or written language. It is usually not real, fiction.


Teks Narratif adalah teks yang isinya tentang cerita (fiksi/non fiksi/dongeng/ cerita rakyat, dll) dan dalam alur plotnya selalu disertai dengan puncak masalah/ klimaks (complication) kemudian diikuti dengan penyelesaian masalah (Resolution).

Eg fairytales, legends, plays, science fiction, myths, novel, cartoons, adventure/ short stories.

  • Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants (who / what, where and when).
  • Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
  • Complication: a crisis arises.
  • Resolution  : the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
  • Re-orientation: optional.


Ÿ Focus on specific and usually individualized Participants.

Ÿ Use of Material, Mental and Relational Processes.

Ÿ Use of past tense

Ÿ Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances





The social function of procedure text is to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.


Teks Prosedure adalah teks yang isinya mengenai langkah – langkah /step bagaimana membuat / melakukan sesuatu.

Eg. Recipes / cookbooks, craft instructions, game rules, science experiments/report.


§  Goal or aim.

§  Materials (not required for all procedural texts)

§  Steps 1-n (i.e. Goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the Goal)


  • Focus on generalized human agents.
  • Use of simple present, often imperative.
  • Use mainly of temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence).
  • Use mainly of Material Processes.
  • Gambar

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